The abreast parlour allows cows to enter and leave individually. The variation of this parlour shown here, in which the front of the stands can be opened so that the cows can proceed forward out of the parlour after milking has proved effective. The main drawback with the abreast parlour is the relatively long distance to walk between milking points, and cows obstructing the herdsman, since they share the same floor space.
The stands should be 1. In both cases the width for the milker should be 0. A two-level abreast parlour, in which the milker works at a lower level than the cows stand, is more difficult to construct and has no outstanding advantages over the single level type.
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The abreast parlour has been common in East Africa for herds of more than 40 cows, but its uses is decreasing and giving way to the double herringbone parlour. The tandem parlour also allows for individual care of the cows. It is used mostly for smaller commercial herds and in particular, for herds with high yielding cows. The main drawbacks with this type of parlour are its larger space requirement and more expensive construction when compared to other types of parlours; of similar capacity.
The parlour capacity in terms of cows milked per hour and labour efficiency can compare to that of a small herringbone parlour. In walk-through or chute parlours cows enter and leave in batches. They have been used mainly for small herds. Their narrow width can be an advantage where a parlour is to be fitted in an existing building, but it is inferior to other types in most other respects, however, it is cheaper to construct than a tandem parlour. The herringbone parlour layout results in a compact working area and allows feeders to be fixed to the side walls. Four stands on each side of the pit, as shown in Figure If the herd has fewer than 80 cows, then a double-three parlour will keep the investment lower with only a small drop in labour efficiency.
The popularity of the herringbone parlour is mainly due to its simplicity and its high capacity measured in numbers of cows milked per man-hour. A man-hour is the equivalent of one man working for one hour. However, the risk of cows kicking the herdsman is greater in this type than in parlours where the herdsman stands alongside the cow. Double 6, 8, 10 and even 12 stand parlours are used for very large herds. These larger parlours allow more cows to be milked per hour, but because of the need for more workers and the increased waiting time to allow all cows on one side to finish before they are released, the output per man-hour is usually less.
It is advantageous to equip milking parlours with grain feeders which allow each cow to be fed in ratio to her production. Since cows are more likely to enter the parlour when they expect to be feds some labour will be saved.
Manual distribution of the concentrates with a measuring scoop is recommended except in the largest herds. Semi automatic and automatic systems are expensive to install and require spare parts and mechanics for their maintenance and these may not be available when needed. The cows are normally assembled in a collecting yard holding area before milking.
This may be a portion of the yard that is temporarily fenced off with chains. The collecting yard should have a minimum size of 1. Large horned cows and a low herd number will require the largest space per cow. Provision must be made for water for the cows awaiting their turn to enter the parlour. This not only improves drainage, but also encourages the cows to face the entrance.
AFTER THE CALF IS BORN
The collecting yard should be paved for easy cleaning and to allow for sanitary conditions in the parlour. A roof is desirable for shade and to avoid wet cows entering the parlour in the rainy season and it will reduce the amount of rainwater that has to be stored in the manure pit. An entrance into the parlour that is straight no turns will ensure a smooth and convenient operation.
Once trained, cows and heifers will walk readily into the parlour. A single step of about mm will help to keep manure from being carried into the parlour. An exit leading into an uncrowded area will facilitate animal flow. A straight exit is desirable but not as important as a straight entry. If exiting alleys are needed they should be narrow to mm depending on cow size , to keep the cows from turning around. One advantage of loose housing of cattle is the opportunity to construct the feed trough in the fence allowing easy access for filling.
Review: It’s Milking Time by Phyllis Alsdurf
The simplest type of manger consists of a low barrier with a rail fixed above. However, cattle have a tendency to throw feed forwards while eating, but a wall in front, as shown in Figure The dimensions of the trough must be chosen to conform with the height, reach and required width of the feeding space for the animals to be fed, while providing enough volume for the amount of feed distributed at each feeding time.
Figures Although timber construction is simple to install, concrete should be considered because of its greater durability. When timber is used, the base should be well treated with wood preservative.
However, the preservative should not be used on any surface which cattle can reach to lick as some preservative materials are toxic to animals. When concrete is used, it should be at least C20, or a nominal mix of ; since a lower grade concrete would soon deteriorate due to chemical attack by feed stuffs and the cow's saliva.
The cows will press against the barrier before and during the feeding so that the head rail must be firmly fixed to the vertical posts, which are immovably set in the ground. A narrow step next to the trough will help to keep the trough free of manure as animals will not back up on to such a step.
The bottom of the feed trough should be at a level to mm above the level at which the cow is standing with her front feet.
It's Milking Time! Dairy Farm Pictures
A slightly more elaborate feed trough separates the cattle by vertical rails or tomb stone barriers, as shown in Figure The tombstone barrier may also reduce fodder spillage because the cow has to lift her head before withdrawing it from the trough. A simple roof constructed over the feed trough and the area where the cows stand to eat will serve as a shade and encourage daytime feeding in bright weather while serving to protect the feed from water damage in rainy periods. Drinking water for cattle must be clean. Impurities may disturb the microbiological activities in the rumen. Weaning can be done in several ways, but regardless of the weaning system practised, the young calf should be kept warm and dry in a clean, draft-free place.
This is the removal of the calf to a place where the calf and cow can not see or hear each other. Without good fences and yards to keep the mother and calf separate, it is difficult to do successfully.
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The advantage of complete weaning is that all of the milk produced by the cow is available for sale, and the cow and the calf soon forget about each other. If the equipment is dirty the calf may get sick. It is difficult to do successfully if your hired labour is responsible for calf feeding and they are not interested or do not understand the need for hygiene and correct feeding temperatures.
Therefore complete weaning is recommended only for well developed farms. To give the best results, it is better to adopt the practice of partial weaning.
Milking the buffalo
The cow and calf can run together all day in the paddock, or the calf is put into a pen near the cow where it stays all day, but it must not be able to suckle the cow through the bars of the pen. In both cases the calf can only suckle when it is allowed to and must be given feed and water. The number of times it is permitted to suckle depends on whether the cow is milked once or twice each day.
The calf is released to run with the cow each day and is kept in the pen away from the cow during the night until the morning milking. This has the advantage of the calf being able to develop its stomach by grazing grass during the day as soon as it wishes to graze The disadvantage is that the calf has access to the cow all day and less milk is available for sale than completely isolating the calf and giving it a limited amount of time each day for feeding. The best system when twice a day milking is practised, is to keep the calf penned near the milking bail and allow it to immediately suckle only after the morning and evening milkings have finished.
The cow is not fully milked out during milking and enough milk is left by the milker for the calf A small pen is constructed at the front of the headbale and within sight of the cow from which the calf is released to suckle when milking is finished. The calf is returned to the pen until after the next milking, where it is hand fed fresh cut forage, concentrate [e. If you are keeping calves penned away from the cows for part of each day, you should remember:.
The calf should be allowed to have all that it wants. This is essential if is to remain healthy. Sometimes a cow will die shortly after giving birth. The stored colostrum, even from another cow, can be thawed and fed to the calf and it is still useful several months after freezing. For example, Vikings did Teacher Ms. Robo Kitty. Robo Kitty is teaching us about cat genetics at Cat School. I was Today we are going to speak of Fimbulwinter from Norse mythology.
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