Chattel slavery called traditional slavery, is so named because people are treated as the chattel of the owner and are bought and sold as commodities. Under the chattel slave system, slave status was imposed on children of the enslaved at birth. Although it dominated many different societies throughout human history, this form of slavery has been formally abolished and is rare today; when it can be said to survive, it is not upheld by the legal system of any internationally recognized government. For example, in Persia , the situations and lives of such slaves could be better than those of common citizens.
Forced labour, or unfree labour, is sometimes used to refer to when an individual is forced to work against their own will, under threat of violence or other punishment, but the generic term unfree labour is used to describe chattel slavery, as well as any other situation in which a person is obliged to work against their own will and a person's ability to work productively is under the complete control of another person; this may include institutions not classified as slavery, such as serfdom and penal labour.
While some unfree labourers, such as serfs , have substantive, de jure legal or traditional rights, they have no ability to terminate the arrangements under which they work, are subject to forms of coercion and restrictions on their activities and movement outside their place of work. Human trafficking involves women and children forced into prostitution and is the fastest growing form of forced labour, with Thailand , India and Mexico having been identified as leading hotspots of commercial sexual exploitation of children.
Examples of sexual slavery in military contexts, include detention in "rape camps" or "comfort stations," "comfort women", forced "marriages" to soldiers and other practices involving the treatment of women or men as chattel and, as such, violations of the peremptory norm prohibiting slavery.
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In , Human Rights Watch estimated that , to , children served as soldiers in current conflicts. More girls under 16 work as domestic workers than any other category of child labor sent to cities by parents living in rural poverty such as in restaveks in Haiti.
Forced marriages or early marriages are considered types of slavery. Forced marriage continues to be practiced in parts of the world including some parts of Asia and Africa and in immigrant communities in the West. Sacred prostitution is where girls and women are pledged to priests or those of higher castes, such as the practice of Devadasi in South Asia or fetish slaves in West Africa. Nazism National Socialism , more known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party — the National Socialist German Workers' Party — in Nazi Germany , of other far-right groups with similar aims.
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It aimed to overcome social divisions and create a German homogeneous society based on racial purity which represented a people's community. The Nazis aimed to unite all Germans living in German territory, as well as gain additional lands for German expansion under the doctrine of Lebensraum and exclude those who they deemed either community aliens or "inferior" races.
The term "National Socialism" arose out of attempts to create a nationalist redefinition of " socialism ", as an alternative to both Marxist international socialism and free market capitalism. Nazism rejected the Marxist concepts of class conflict and universal equality, opposed cosmopolitan internationalism , sought to convince all parts of the new German society to subordinate their personal interests to the "common good", accepting political interests as the main priority of economic organization; the Nazi Party's precursor, the Pan-German nationalist and antisemitic German Workers' Party , was founded on 5 January By the early s the party was renamed the National Socialist German Workers' Party — to attract workers away from left-wing parties such as the Social Democrats and the Communists — and Adolf Hitler assumed control of the organization.
The National Socialist Program or "25 Points" was adopted in and called for a united Greater Germany that would deny citizenship to Jews or those of Jewish descent, while supporting land reform and the nationalization of some industries. In Mein Kampf , Hitler outlined the anti-Semitism and anti-Communism at the heart of his political philosophy, as well as his disdain for representative democracy and his belief in Germany's right to territorial expansion; the Nazi Party won the greatest share of the popular vote in the two Reichstag general elections of , making them the largest party in the legislature by far, but still short of an outright majority.
Because none of the parties were willing or able to put together a coalition government, in Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by President Paul Von Hindenburg , through the support and connivance of traditional conservative nationalists who believed that they could control him and his party. Through the use of emergency presidential decrees by Hindenburg, a change in the Weimar Constitution which allowed the Cabinet to rule by direct decree, bypassing both Hindenburg and the Reichstag, the Nazis had soon established a one-party state.
The Sturmabteilung and the Schutzstaffel functioned as the paramilitary organizations of the Nazi Party. Using the SS for the task, Hitler purged the party's more and economically radical factions in the mid Night of the Long Knives , including the leadership of the SA. From that point, Hitler was the dictator of Nazi Germany, known as the "Third Reich", under which Jews, political opponents and other "undesirable" elements were marginalized, imprisoned or murdered.
Many millions of people were exterminated in a genocide which became known as the Holocaust during World War II , including around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe. Following Germany's defeat in World War II and the discovery of the full extent of the Holocaust, Nazi ideology became universally disgraced.
It is regarded as immoral and evil, with only a few fringe racist groups referred to as neo-Nazis , describing themselves as followers of National Socialism. The full name of the party was Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei for which they used the acronym NSDAP ; the term "Nazi" was in use before the rise of the NSDAP as a colloquial and derogatory word for a backwards farmer or peasant, characterizing an awkward and clumsy person.
In the s, political opponents of the NSDAP in the German labour movement seized on this and — using the earlier abbreviated term "Sozi" for Sozialist as an example — shortened NSDAP's name, Nationalsozialistische, to the dismissive "Nazi", in order to associate them with the derogatory use of the term mentioned above; the first use of the term "Nazi" by the National Socialists occurred in in a publication by Joseph Goebbels called Der Nazi-Sozi. In Goebbels' pamphlet, the word "Nazi" only appears when linked with the word "Sozi" as an abbreviation of.
Able seaman An able seaman is a naval rating of the deck department of a merchant ship with more than two years' experience at sea and considered "well acquainted with his duty". An AB may work as a day worker, or a combination of these roles. At sea an AB watchstander's duties include standing watch as lookout. A helmsman is required to maintain a steady course, properly execute all rudder orders and communicate utilizing navigational terms relating to heading and steering.
A watchstander may be called upon to stand security-related watches, such as a gangway watch or anchor watch while the ship is not underway. An AB day worker performs general maintenance, repair and upkeep of material and areas in the deck department; this can include maintenance of the ship's metal structures such as chipping, cleaning and painting.
Areas in need of such maintenance include the hull, superstructure , cargo gear, smoke stack. Day workers frequently perform maintenance on lifeboats , rescue boats and liferafts, emergency and damage control gear. For many vessels, being a dayworker is a position granted to senior AB's, since it allows more time for rest and relaxation.
An AB may be called on to use emergency, damage control, safety equipment. Able seamen perform all operations connected with the launching of lifesaving equipment. An AB is expected to be able to operate deck machinery, such as the windlass or winches while mooring or unmooring, to operate cargo gear.
Able seamen require advanced training, including lifeboatman certification; the ship's boatswain , if carried, is a senior AB. The boatswain is in charge of the able seamen and ordinary seaman that comprise the unlicensed deck crew, reports directly to the chief mate; the Code of Federal Regulations establishes in 46 CFR Requires three years service on deck on vessels operating on the oceans or the Great Lakes.
Able Seaman—Limited. Requires 18 months service on deck in vessels of gross tons or more which operate in a service not confined to the rivers and smaller inland lakes of the United States. Able Seaman—Special. Requires 12 months service on deck on vessels operating on the oceans, or the navigable waters of the United States including the Great Lakes.
Requires six months service on deck on vessels operating on the oceans, or the navigable waters of the United States including the Great Lakes. Able Seaman—Sail. Requires six months service on deck on sail or auxiliary sail vessels operating on the oceans or the navigable waters of the United States including the Great Lakes. Time served in certain training programs and school ships may be substituted for the time of service listed above.
Special certificates of service are available for Great Lakes -- 18 months service. An examination, conducted only in English, consisting of questions regarding:lifeboats and liferafts, the names of their essential parts, a description of the required equipment. In the actual demonstration, the applicant shall show ability by taking command of a boat and directing the operation of clearing away, swinging out, lowering the boat into the water, acting as coxswain in charge of the boat under oars; the AB shall demonstrate ability to row by pulling an oar in the boat. The applicant shall demonstrate knowledge of the principal knots , bends and hitches in common use by tying them; the applicant must demonstrate to the satisfaction of the officer in charge, marine inspection , knowledge of pollution laws and regulations, procedures for discharge containment and cleanup, methods for disposal of sludge and waste material from cargo and fueling operations.
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Nazi Party The National Socialist German Workers' Party referred to in English as the Nazi Party , was a far-right political party in Germany , active between and , that created and supported the ideology of National Socialism. Its precursor, the German Workers' Party , existed from to ; the Nazi Party emerged from the German nationalist and populist Freikorps paramilitary culture, which fought against the communist uprisings in post-World War I Germany. Nazi political strategy focused on anti-big business, anti-bourgeois , anti-capitalist rhetoric , although this was downplayed to gain the support of business leaders, in the s the party's main focus shifted to anti-Semitic and anti-Marxist themes.
Pseudo-scientific racist theories were central to Nazism, expressed in the idea of a "people's community"; the party aimed to unite "racially desirable" Germans as national comrades, while excluding those deemed either to be political dissidents, physically or intellectually inferior, or of a foreign race. The Nazis sought to strengthen the Germanic people, the " Aryan master race", through racial purity and eugenics , broad social welfare programs, a collective subordination of individual rights, which could be sacrificed for the good of the state on behalf of the people. To protect the supposed purity and strength of the Aryan race, the Nazis sought to exterminate Jews, Romani and most other Slavs , along with the physically and mentally handicapped, they disenfranchised and segregated homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses and political opponents.
The persecution reached its climax when the party-controlled German state set in motion the Final Solution—an industrial system of genocide which achieved the murder of an estimated 5. Hitler established a totalitarian regime known as the Third Reich. Following the defeat of the Third Reich at the conclusion of World War II in Europe , the party was "declared to be illegal" by the Allied powers, who carried out denazification in the years after the war. Nazi, the informal and derogatory term for a party member, abbreviates the party's name, was coined in analogy with Sozi, an abbreviation of Sozialdemokrat.
Members of the party referred to themselves as Nationalsozialisten as Nazis; the term Parteigenosse was used among Nazis, with its corresponding feminine form Parteigenossin. The term was in use before the rise of the party as a colloquial and derogatory word for a backward peasant, an awkward and clumsy person, it derived from Ignaz, a shortened version of Ignatius, a common name in the Nazis' home region of Bavaria.
Opponents seized on this, the long-existing Sozi, to attach a dismissive nickname to the National Socialists. In , when Adolf Hitler assumed power in the German government, the usage of "Nazi" diminished in Germany, although Austrian anti-Nazis continued to use the term, the use of "Nazi Germany" and "Nazi regime" was popularised by anti-Nazis and German exiles abroad. In English, the term is not considered slang , has such derivatives as Nazism and denazification; the party grew out of smaller political groups with a nationalist orientation that formed in the last years of World War I.
On 7 March , Anton Drexler , an avid German nationalist, formed a branch of this league in Munich. Drexler was a local locksmith , a member of the militarist Fatherland Party during World War I and was bitterly opposed to the armistice of November and the revolutionary upheavals that followed. Drexler followed the views of militant nationalists of the day, such as opposing the Treaty of Versailles , having antisemitic, anti-monarchist and anti-Marxist views, as well as believing in the superiority of Germans whom they claimed to be part of the Aryan "master race".
However, he accused international capitalism of being a Jewish-dominated movement and denounced capitalists for war profiteering in World War I. Drexler saw the political violence and instability in Germany as the result of the Weimar Republic being out-of-touch with the masses the lower classes. Drexler's movement received support from some influential figures. Supporter Dietrich Eckart , a well-to-do journalist, brought military figure Felix Graf von Bothmer , a prominent supporter of the concept of "national socialism", to address the movement.
In , Karl Harrer convinced Drexler and several others to form the Politischer Arbeiterzirkel ; the members met perio. Nuremberg trials The Nuremberg trials were a series of military tribunals held by the Allied forces under international law and the laws of war after World War II. The trials were most notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the political, military and economic leadership of Nazi Germany , who planned, carried out, or otherwise participated in the Holocaust and other war crimes; the trials were held in the city of Nuremberg and their decisions marked a turning point between classical and contemporary international law.
The first and best known of these trials was that of the major war criminals before the International Military Tribunal, it was described as "the greatest trial in history" by Sir Norman Birkett , one of the British judges who presided over them. Held between 20 November and 1 October , the Tribunal was given the task of trying 24 of the most important political and military leaders of the Third Reich — though the proceeding against Martin Bormann was tried in absentia , while another defendant, Robert Ley , committed suicide within a week of the trial's commencement.
Heinrich Himmler was captured before he could succeed. Krebs and Burgdorf committed suicide two days after Hitler in the same place. Reinhard Heydrich had been assassinated by Czech partisans in Josef Terboven killed himself with dynamite in Norway in Adolf Eichmann fled to Argentina to avoid Allied capture, but was apprehended by Israel's intelligence service and hanged in Further trials of lesser war criminals were conducted under Control Council Law No.
Related Fritz Sauckel: Hitlers Muster-Gauleiter und und Sklavenhalter (German Edition)
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